Cross sectional study of microalbuminuria, C-peptide and fundal changes in pre-diabetics

Prasanna Venkatesh, Jayasingh K., Srikanth K., Siva R. Green


Background: Pre-diabetes is a mounting health problem occurring worldwide. Microvascular complications are prone to occur during this stage. Early diagnosis and treatment delay progression to diabetes mellitus and microvascular complications. Aims and objectives of the study was to determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria, c-peptide and fundal changes in pre-diabetics.

Methods: 125 pre-diabetic patients those who visited MGMCRI General Medicine OPD and admitted in wards were taken into the study after fulfilling the inclusion criteria and after obtaining written informed consent. All those study patient’s urine and blood sample were sent for analysis of microalbuminuria and C-peptide respectively. Fundus was examined for retinopathic changes.

Results: Among 125 prediabetic participants, prevalence of microalbuminuria was 12.8%, c-peptide levels was elevated in 46.4 %, but none of the study participants had fundal diabetic retinopathy changes.

Conclusions: The microvascular complications like microalbuminuria starts in the pre-diabetic stage itself. Prevalence of increased c-peptide levels and microalbuminuria was more in individuals who had both IFG and IGT. Elevated C peptide level and microalbuminuria were found to appear much earlier than retinopathy in prediabetes. Hence its use can enhance for early diagnosis of prediabetes.


C-peptide, Microalbuminuria, Prediabetes, Retinopathy

Full Text:



Paul Zimmet KGM. A and JS. Global and social implications of diabetes epidemic. 2001:6.

Sarah Wild GR. Global prevalance for diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:5-7.

Anjana RM, Deepa M, Pradeepa R, Mahanta J, Narain K, Das HK, et al. Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 15 states of India: results from the ICMR–INDIAB population-based cross-sectional study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2017;5(8):585-96.

Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(Suppl 1):S62-9.

Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(Suppl 1):S67-74.

Group TDS. Age- and Sex-Specific Prevalences of Diabetes and Impaired Glucose Regulation in 13 European Cohorts1. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(1):61-9.

Jones AG, Hattersley AT. The clinical utility of C-peptide measurement in the care of patients with diabetes. Diabet Med. 2013;30(7):803-17.

Chailurkit L, Jongjaroenprasert W, Chanprasertyothin S, Ongphiphadhanakul B. Insulin and C-peptide levels, pancreatic beta cell function, and insulin resistance across glucose tolerance status in Thais. J Clin Lab Anal. 2007;21(2):85-90.

Kim J-D, Kang SJ, Lee MK, Park SE, Rhee EJ, Park C-Y, et al. C-Peptide-Based Index Is More Related to Incident Type 2 Diabetes in Non-Diabetic Subjects than Insulin-Based Index. Endocrinol Metab. 2016;31(2):320.

Jago C. American Diabetes Association--66th scientific sessions. Updates on drug treatments. 9-13 June 2006, Washington, DC, USA. IDrugs Investig Drugs J. 2006;9(8):542-4.

Rao BP, Bai GRL, Kennedy GRS, Satyanarayana KVV. Study of the prevalence of microalbuminuria and retinopathy in prediabetes in a tertiary care hospital. J Evid Based Med Healthc. 2015;2(6):608-14.

Bahar A, Makhlough A, Yousefi A, Kashi Z, Abediankenari S. Correlation Between Prediabetes Conditions and Microalbuminuria. Nephro-Urol Mon. 2013;5(2):741-4.

Thazin M, Latt TS. Beta Cell Function, Insulin Resistance and Low Grade Systemic Inflammation in Myanmar Adults with Different Categories of Glucose Tolerance. J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc. 2014;28(1):64.