Study of glomerular filtration rate in patients with metabolic syndrome


  • Prakash K. G. Department of Medicine, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bangalore, Karnataka, India
  • Rashmi S. Department of Medicine, Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute, Bangalore, Karnataka, India



Chronic kidney disease, Glomerular filtration rate, Metabolic syndrome


Background: Chronic kidney disease is a major risk factor for end stage renal disease, cardiovascular events and death. Various studies have shown an association between metabolic syndrome and CKD. Even mild renal insufficiency increases the risk for cardiovascular events. This study was conducted to detect CKD in its early stages which are characterized by mildly reduced GFR in patients with metabolic syndrome.

Methods: This is a cross sectional study of 60 patients, 30 with metabolic syndrome diagnosed on the basis of IDF criteria and 30 controls. EGFR was calculated using the CKD-EPI formula and the results between the two groups was analysed using chi square test for statistical significance.

Results: In this study conducted on 60 patients, age distribution was between 20 and 60 years. Male to female ratio was 1:1.06. 26.66% of the cases had normal GFR while among the controls, 46.66% had normal GFR. Out of the 30 cases, 53.33% had mildly reduced GFR while out of the controls, 23.33% had mildly reduced GFR. This association between metabolic syndrome and mildly reduced EGFR was found to be significant (p≤0.05).

Conclusions: The results of this study showed that metabolic syndrome is associated with a mildly reduced GFR and hence early detection of these risk factors is essential for treatment and prevention of CKD.


Eckel RH. Metabolic syndrome. In: Kasper D, Fauci A, Hauser S, Longo D, Jameson J, Loscalzo J, editors. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015:2422:2449.

Alberti G, Zimmet PZ, Shaw J, Grundy SM. The IDF consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome. Brussels: Interna Diabetes Federation. 2006:1-23.

Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD Work Group: KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Supplements. 20133:1-150.

Cornier MA, Dabelea D, Hernandez TL, Lindstrom RC, Steig AJ, Stob NR, et al. The metabolic syndrome. Endo Reviews. 2008 Dec 1;29(7):777-822.

Agrawal V, Shah A, Rice C, Franklin BA, McCullough PA. Impact of treating the metabolic syndrome on chronic kidney disease. Nature Rev Nephrol. 2009 Sep;5(9):520.

NKF K. Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, Clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis .2002;39:S1-S246.

Hu W, Wu XJ, Ni YJ, Hao HR, Yu WN, Zhou HW. Metabolic syndrome is independently associated with a mildly reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate: a cross-sectional study. BMC Nephrol. 2017 Jun 13;18(1):192.

Song H, Wang X, Cai Q, Ding W, Huang S, Zhuo L. Association of metabolic syndrome with decreased glomerular filtration rate among 75,468 Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2014;9.

Kithiyakara C, Yamwong S, Cheepudomwit S, Domrongkitchaiporn S, Unkurapinun N, Sritara P, et al. The metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease in a South east Asian cohort. Kidney Int. 2007 Apr;71(7):693-700.

Chen J, Muntner P, Hamm LL, Jones DW, Batuman V, Fonseca V, et al. The metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease in U.S. adults. Ann Intern Med. 2004;140:167-74.

Ritz E. Kidney damage in metabolic syndrome: nip it in the bud. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;53;726-9.






Original Research Articles