A study of neurological problems in HIV infection

Anjali Shivpuje, Pradeep Singhal


Background: Knowledge of central nervous system manifestation (CS) is crucial for clinical practitioners, which is why this study was conducted to identify the neurological manifestations in HIV patient is crucial problems with HIV and the difficulties in managing these patients.

Methods: The present study was conducted on patients of HIV infection who were either admitted or being treated in OPD during study period. The cases were selected based seropositivity for HIV on two consecutive occasions by ELISA and presence of WHO surveillance definition criteria. Based on a detailed history account including high risk behaviour to HIV infection was obtained from patients or relatives. Then each patient was subjected to thorough physical examination with specific attention to any clinical evidence of immunosuppression viz oral thrush. Thorough neurological examination was done to localize the part of central nervous system affected. Patients were then categorized into various clinical neurological syndromes.

Results: Commonest finding was single or multiple ring enhancing lesions seen in 21(35%) patients followed by basal exudates (21.6%). Hydrocephalus was seen in 5 patients (8.3%) and infarct due to vascular lesion in 4(7%) patients. Oral thrush was more commonly seen in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. CSF analysis was useful and revealed abnormalities in most of the patients with infective disorders.

Conclusions: In conclusion, variety of neurologic manifestations occur and any part of nervous system can be affected in HIV infection and high index of euspicion is required to pick up the cases early in the course which may help to improve the quality and life span of these suspicion patients.


Cryptococcal meningitis, CSF, HIV infection, Neurological problems

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