DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2349-3933.ijam20205047

Association between obstructive sleep apnea and comorbidities in adult patients

Govind Narayan Srivastava, Deepanjali Sharma, Mrityunjay Sharma, Aiyush Jain

Abstract


Background: With the emergence of lifestyle diseases in epidemic proportions in developing nations like India, Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is increasing consistently. OSA brings many adverse consequences, such as systemic hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, behavioral changes and many other comorbid conditions.  

Methods: This is a prospective study of 46 polysomnography proven patients with OSA apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ≥5/h. The study period was from 1st October, 2017 to 31st March, 2019. Subjects were divided into three subgroups according to AHI: mild OSAS: 5<AHI<15, moderate OSAS: 15<AHI<30 and severe OSAS: AHI >30. The patients were thoroughly examined and evaluated for associated comorbidities.  

Results: We evaluated 25 men and 21 women with OSA, mean age of 57.7 years (range 30–86). Average weight and body mass index (BMI) of the patients were 86.1 kg (range 65-132) and 33.1 kg/m2 (range 25-46.9) respectively. On evaluation of comorbidities hypertension was on the top 30 (65%) followed by obesity 28 (61%), left ventricular hypertrophy 23 (50%), diabetes mellitus 21 (46%), dyslipidemia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 12 (26%) each. Total no. of comorbidities and multiple comorbidities in a single patient were highest in severe OSA group.

Conclusions: OSA predominantly affects middle-aged (>55 years) individuals who are overweight with many having high neck circumference. There is statistically significant positive correlation between AHI and BMI and between number of comorbidities and severity of OSAS. Awareness regarding OSA among the general population and clinicians, wider availability of PSG studies will help in identifying and treating these patients.


Keywords


Obstructive sleep apnea, Apnea hypopnea index, Comorbidities, Obese

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