Severe metabolic acidosis in critically Ill patients and its association with the outcome in North Karnataka
Keywords:Acid-base disorders, Critical illness, Metabolic acidosis
Background: Outcomes of metabolic acidosis remain unsure and needs to be explored deeply. This article presents a rational approach to diagnosis and management of metabolic acidosis. The data focusing specifically on severe metabolic acidosis (pH<7.20) is scanty.
Methods: It was a prospective observational study. A total of 50 consecutive critically ill patients (APACHE II score of 18 or more) with single severe metabolic acidosis (pH<7.20) admitted to the intensive care units (ICUs) of Shri BM Patil Medical College, Vijayapura. Arterial blood gas analysis along with other relevant investigations was done within first 24 h of ICU admission.
Results: Among 50 patients, 32 patients expired compared to 18 patients who were discharged from hospital in stable condition. Out of 29 patients, who had lactic acidosis, 21 (72%) patients died compared to 8 (28%) patients who were discharged in stable condition. Out of 22 patients who have low Strong Ion Difference (SID) 16 patients had expired (76%) remaining 6 (24%) patients are discharged at stable condition. Out of 27 patients who were put on mechanical ventilator on the first day, 22 (80%) patients expired. 18 patients required vasopressor support on admission out of which 16 (90%) patients had lactic acidosis.
Conclusions: Lactic acidosis and strong ion gap are found to be associated with higher mortality. Hypotensive patients required vasopressor support on admission. Monitoring of serum pH, HCO3−, lactate levels and strong ion gap may have prognostic and therapeutic implications.
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