Distribution of interstitial lung diseases in a tertiary care centre of South India

Mahesh Babu Vemuri, Manju Rajaram, Madhusmita Mohanty Mohapatra, Mathavaswami Vijayageetha, V. S. Negi, Subathra Adithan, Pampa Chtoi, B. V. Sai Chandran, Ravindrachari M.


Background: The term interstitial lung diseases (ILD) refer to a broad category of lung diseases rather than a specific disease entity. True prevalence of ILD is difficult to estimate and it may vary according to the geography, environment, occupation etc. Aim and objectives were to find out the distribution of interstitial lung disease (ILD) subtypes in a tertiary care centre.  

Methods: A descriptive study was conducted between August 2016 and November 2018 in a tertiary care centre in Puducherry, South India. Baseline demographic details, clinical symptoms, signs, radiological findings (chest radiograph and HRCT), pathological findings, and physiological findings were taken into consideration and diagnosis of type of interstitial lung disease was made using multidisciplinary discussion. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 19.0 version.

Results: A total of 150 patients were recruited of which 70.5% were females. Most common ILD subtype in our study was connective tissue disease associated ILD – 97 patients (65%) followed by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)–31 patients (22%). Most common type of CTD ILD observed in our study was progressive systemic sclerosis (46%) followed by mixed connective tissue disease (24%). The most common HRCT finding was NSIP pattern and most commonly observed physiological abnormality was moderate restriction and moderate diffusion impairment.  

Conclusions: Connective tissue disease-associated ILD was the most common ILD found in our study amongst south Indian population. This suggests that the distribution of ILD would vary depending on the geographical area and the environmental exposure which was in contrast with the Indian ILD registry.  


Idiopathic diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, Pulmonary diseases, Pulmonary physiological process

Full Text:



Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Nadel JA, editors. Murray and Nadel's textbook of respiratory medicine. 2. Sixth ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2016. 1118. Available at:!/browse/book/3-s2.0-C20111081237. Accessed on 20 September 2020.

Raghu G, Mehta S. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in India: Insights and lessons from the prospective, landmark ILD-India registry. Lung India Off Organ Indian Chest Soc. 2016;33:589–91.

Chapter-10-interstitial-lung-disease.pdf. Available at: Accessed on 12 December 2019.

Graham BL, Steenbruggen I, Miller MR, Barjaktarevic IZ, Cooper BG, Hall GL, et al. Standardization of Spirometry 2019 Update. An Official American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Technical Statement. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;200:e70–88.

Graham BL, Brusasco V, Burgos F, Cooper BG, Jensen R, Kendrick A, et al. 2017 ERS/ATS standards for single-breath carbon monoxide uptake in the lung. Eur Respir J. 2017;49:1600016.

Adesh K, Prashant Y, Ashish GK, Aditya GK, Anand K, Sudhir C. Profile Of Interstitial Lung Diseases At Tertiary Care Centre Of Northern India. 7.

Kumar R, Gupta N, Goel N. Spectrum of interstitial lung disease at a tertiary care centre in India. Pneumonol Alergol Pol. 2014;82:218–26.

Gagiya AK, Suthar HN, Bhagat GR. Clinical profile of interstitial lung disease cases. Natl J Med Res. 2012;2:2-4.

Sen T, Udwadia ZF. Retrospective Study of Interstitial Lung Disease in a Tertiary Care Centre in India.

Valappil A, Mehta A, Kunoor A, Haridas N. Spectrum of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases: An Experience from A Tertiary Care Referral Centre From South India. Egypt J Chest Dis Tuberc. 2018;67:276.

Singh S, Collins BF, Sharma BB, Joshi JM, Talwar D, Katiyar S, et al. Interstitial Lung Disease in India. Results of a Prospective Registry. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;195:801–13.

Mitra S, Mukherjee S, Ray S, Mitra R, Kundu S, Ganguly J. Spectrum of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases with special reference to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and connective tissue disease: An eastern India experience. Lung India. 2014;31:354.

Das V, Desai U, Joshi JM. Clinical profile of interstitial lung disease at a tertiary care centre, India. 2017;30:7.

Dhooria S, Agarwal R, Sehgal IS, Prasad KT, Garg M, Bal A, et al. Spectrum of interstitial lung diseases at a tertiary center in a developing country: A study of 803 subjects. Chowdhary A, editor. PLOS ONE. 2018;13:e0191938.

Zubairi ABS, Hassan M, Shahzad T, Sarwar S, Abbas A, Ahmad H, et al. Spectrum of interstitial lung disease from a tertiary care hospital in Karachi. J Pak Med Assoc. 2017;67:5.

Ban C, Yan W, Xie B, Zhu M, Liu Y, Zhang S, et al. Spectrum of interstitial lung disease in China from 2000 to 2012. Eur Respir J. 2018;52:1701554.

Duchemann B, Annesi-Maesano I, Jacobe de Naurois C, Sanyal S, Brillet P-Y, Brauner M, et al. Prevalence and incidence of interstitial lung diseases in a multi-ethnic county of Greater Paris. Eur Respir J. 2017;50:1602419.

Musellim B, Okumus G, Uzaslan E, Akgün M, Cetinkaya E, Turan O, et al. Epidemiology, and distribution of interstitial lung diseases in Turkey: ILD in Turkey. Clin Respir J. 2014;8:55–62.

Karakatsani A, Papakosta D, Rapti A, Antoniou KM, Dimadi M, Markopoulou A, et al. Epidemiology of interstitial lung diseases in Greece. Respir Med. 2009;103:1122–9.